The International Criminal Court Conference
Professor M. Cherif Bassiouni
DePaul University College of Law
M. Cherif Bassiouni is a distinguished research professor of law at DePaul University and president of the College of Law's International Human Rights Law Institute (IHRLI). He also is president of the International Institute of Higher Studies in Criminal Sciences in Siracusa, Italy, the honorary president of the International Association of Penal Law in Paris, France, and has served the United Nations in a number of capacities. He is the author of 27 and editor of 48 books on international criminal law, comparative criminal law, human rights and U.S. criminal law, as well as the author of 239 articles published in law journals and books in the United States and abroad. In 1999, Bassiouni was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in the field of international criminal justice and for his contribution to the creation of the International Criminal Court. He has received honorary degrees from universities in France, Ireland, Italy and the United States, and he has received medals from Austria, Egypt, France, Germany, Italy and the United States. He also has received numerous academic and civic awards, including the Hague Prize for International Law, the Special Award of the Council of Europe, the Defender of Democracy Award, Parliamentarians for Global Action and The Adlai Stevenson Award of the United Nations Association.
The Honorable John B. Bellinger III
Legal Adviser to the Secretary of State
John B. Bellinger, III was sworn in as the Legal Adviser to the Secretary of State on April 8, 2005. He is the principal adviser on all domestic and international law matters to the Department of State, the Foreign Service, and the diplomatic and consular posts abroad. He is also the principal adviser on legal matters relating to the conduct of foreign relations to other agencies and, through the Secretary of State, to the President and the National Security Council. Mr. Bellinger joined the Department of State in January 2005 as Senior Advisor to Secretary Rice, having previously co-directed her transition team. From February 2001 to January 2005, Mr. Bellinger served as Senior Associate Counsel to the President and Legal Adviser to the National Security Council at the White House. As Legal Adviser, he provided legal advice to the President, the National Security Adviser, NSC Principals, and NSC and White House staff on a broad range of national security and international legal matters. He was one of the principal drafters of the 2004 law that created the Director of National Intelligence. Mr. Bellinger served as Counsel for National Security Matters in the Criminal Division of the Department of Justice from 1997 to 2001. He served previously as Counsel to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (1996), as General Counsel to the Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the U.S. Intelligence Community (1995-1996), and as Special Assistant to Director of Central Intelligence William Webster (1988-1991). From 1991 to 1995, he practiced law with Wilmer Cutler & Pickering in Washington, DC.
Mr. Bellinger received his A.B. cum laude in 1982 from Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs and his J.D. cum laude in 1986 from Harvard Law School. He also received an M.A. in Foreign Affairs in 1991 from the University of Virginia, where he was awarded a Woodrow Wilson Foreign Affairs Fellowship. Mr. Bellinger is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Council on Germany and a Fellow of the British-American Project. He is a former Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of St. Albans School in Washington, DC.
Distinguished Scholar, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Betty Bigombe is currently a Distinguished Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and is writing a book on the challenges of mediation in armed conflicts. Bigombe has been involved in peace negotiations in Uganda to end the Lord’s Resistance Army’s (LRA) insurgency since the early 1990s. Prior to taking on these negotiation initiatives, she was appointed minister in Yoweri Museveni’s government and minister of state for pacification of North and Northeastern Uganda. She also was tasked with seeking a peaceful means to end the war in north and northeastern Uganda. Following the failure of a military solution, Bigombe initiated contact with rebel leader Joseph Kony. This initiative gave birth to what would become known as "Bigombe talks." In 1994 Bigombe was named "Uganda’s Woman of the Year" for her efforts to end the violence.
She received her MA in Public Administration from Harvard University in June 1997 and served as a Fellow in Public Policy and Management at the Harvard Institute for International Development. Bigombe joined the World Bank in 1997 as a senior social scientist at the Bank’s newly created Post-Conflict Unit and also worked with the Social Protection and Human Development Units. Her work with child soldiers and the Acholi people has prompted her to become an advocate and voice for the children of Uganda. In 2006, Bigombe returned to the United States as a Senior Fellow at the United States Institute of Peace. Bigombe is an active adviser in the Juba peace talks and continues to work with international donors and local NGOs to equip the Ugandan people with tools for achieving sustainable peace.
Professor Douglass Cassel
University of Notre Dame Law School
Douglass Cassel, a Notre Dame Presidential Fellow and director of the Law School’s Center for Civil and Human Rights, has worked as a consultant to the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the United States Department of State, and the Ford Foundation. He lectures worldwide and his articles are published internationally in English and Spanish. His commentaries on human rights are published in the “Chicago Tribune” and broadcast weekly on National Public Radio in Chicago. Cassel earned a B.A. cum laude from Yale in 1969 and a J.D. cum laude from Harvard in 1972. After serving as a Lieutenant in the Judge Advocate General’s Corps for the United States Navy for two years, he worked for Business and Professional People for the Public Interest, first as a staff counsel and then as general counsel, until 1991. From 1992 until 1993, he served as Legal Adviser to the United Nations Commission on the Truth for El Salvador, advising the commission, supervising its investigations, and acting as principle editor of its report.
His research interests cover a wide range of issues in international human rights, international criminal law and international humanitarian law. Currently, he is involved with efforts to strengthen the Inter-American system for protection of human rights and to ensure respect for human rights in counter-terrorism programs. Cassel is the author of “Jose Padilla Brings Torture to Trial: Can a DOJ Lawyer Be Held Accountable for Advocating the Inhumane?” in the March 2008 issue of “In These Times,” a nationwide progressive magazine.
Professor Mark Drumbl
Washington and Lee University School of Law
Mark A. Drumbl is the Class of 1975 Alumni Professor at Washington & Lee University, School of Law, where he also serves as Director of the University's Transnational Law Institute. He has held visiting appointments on the law faculties of Oxford University (University College), Vanderbilt University, University of Ottawa, and Trinity College-Dublin. In 2008, he will serve as Professeur invité at the Université de Paris II (Panthéon-Assas) and as Visiting Professor at the University of Illinois College of Law.
Professor Drumbl's research and teaching interests include public international law, international criminal law, and postconflict justice. His book, Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2007), which has received critical acclaim and has been widely reviewed, rethinks -- in theory and in practice -- how individuals who perpetrate genocide and crimes against humanity should be punished. Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law received the 2007 Book of the Year Award by the International Association of Criminal Law (U.S. national section). Professor Drumbl's articles have appeared in the NYU, Michigan, Northwestern, George Washington, Tulane, and North Carolina law reviews, a number of peer-review journals, including Human Rights Quarterly, with shorter pieces in the American Journal of International Law and many other periodicals. Professor Drumbl also has authored chapters in edited volumes. He is a frequent presenter at academic symposia, conferences, invited endowed lectures, and workshops. His article Collective Violence and Individual Punishment: The Criminality of Mass Atrocity, 99 Nw. U. L. Rev. 539 (2005) received the Association of American Law Schools Outstanding Scholarly Papers Prize. He has worked as a defense lawyer in Rwanda, has consulted and lectured widely, and has taught in many countries world-wide.
President, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Jonathan F. Fanton is president of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. The MacArthur Foundation is a private, independent institution that helps to build a more just and sustainable world through its grantmaking. With assets of more than $6-1/2 billion, the Foundation makes nearly $300 million in grants each year. The Foundation fosters the development of knowledge, nurtures individual creativity, strengthens institutions, helps improve public policy, and provides information to the public, through its support for public interest media. MacArthur works in 60 countries and has offices in India, Russia, Nigeria, and Mexico. Mr. Fanton was previously president of the New School for Social Research in New York City from 1982 to 1999.
At Yale University, Mr. Fanton earned a baccalaureate degree, a master's in philosophy, and a doctorate in American History. He was special assistant to Yale president Kingman Brewster from 1970 to 1973 and associate provost from 1976 to 1978. From 1978 to 1982, he was vice president for planning at the University of Chicago. Mr. Fanton is a board member of Human Rights Watch, founding Board Chair of the Security Council Report, trustee of the Chicago History Museum, and co-chair of the Partnership for New Communities, which supports the historic transformation of public housing in Chicago.
President, Save Darfur Coalition
Jerry Fowler leads the Save Darfur Coalition and its staff of 30 professional organizers, policy advisors and communications specialists. Fowler coordinates joint Darfur advocacy efforts among the coalition's more than 180 member organizations and directs communications with more than one million Darfur activists, more than one thousand community coalitions, and joint efforts within a strong global movement in 50 different countries. Mr. Fowler is recognized as an authority on the problem of responding to genocide and related crimes against humanity. Before coming to the Save Darfur Coalition, he was the founding director of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum's Committee on Conscience. He has taught law at George Washington University, George Mason University, and American University. He also served for four years as an officer in the United States Army.
Mr. Fowler's publications include "Out of that Darkness: Preventing Genocide in the 21st Century," in Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views (Routledge, 2004). He also directed the short film A Good Man in Hell: General Romeo Dallaire and the Rwanda Genocide.
Judge Philippe Kirsch
President, International Criminal Court
Judge Kirsch is President of the International Criminal Court and a Judge of the Appeals Chamber. He is member of the Bar of the Province of Quebec and was appointed Queen's Counsel in 1988. Judge Kirsch has extensive experience in the establishment of the International Criminal Court, international humanitarian law, international criminal law and public international law. In 1998, Judge Kirsch served as Chairman of the Committee of the Whole of the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (the Rome Conference). He was also Chairman of the Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court (1999 – 2002). Judge Kirsch's experience in international humanitarian law includes serving as Chairman of: the Drafting Committee of the International Conference on the Protection of War Victims (1993), the Drafting Committee at the 26th and 27th International Conferences of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent (1995, 1999) and related meetings. He also chaired the Canadian National Committee on Humanitarian Law (1998 – 1999) and was a member of the Group of International Advisers to the International Committee of the Red Cross (2000 – 2003).
Judge Kirsch has extensive experience in the development of international criminal law, with particular regard to issues related to terrorism. He served as Chairman of the United Nations Ad Hoc Committee for the Suppression of Acts of Terrorism (1997-1999) and as Chairman or President of international conferences addressing terrorism-related issues such as the suppression of unlawful acts in the contexts of international civil aviation and maritime navigation. He was also Chairman of the United Nations Ad Hoc Committee that elaborated the International Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel (1993-1994). Judge Kirsch appeared twice as an Agent before the International Court of Justice. He has also participated in international arbitrations and was a Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (1995-1999). He has written extensively on the International Criminal Court and other international legal issues.
Prosecutor, International Criminal Court
On 21 April 2003, the Assembly of States Parties elected Dr. Luis Moreno-Ocampo of Argentina as first Prosecutor of the Court. Dr. Moreno-Ocampo has a distinguished career as prosecutor, trial attorney, university lecturer and legal strategist on issues ranging from international criminal justice to human rights law, corruption control and journalists' protection.
From October to April 1984, he led the investigations into the case against 9 senior Army commanders, including 3 former heads of state, from the military juntas which ruled Argentina between 1976 and 1980. The subsequent trial, which was held between October 1984 and April 1985 and led to the sentencing of the 5 of the accused, was the first case brought against individuals responsible for mass killings since the Nuremberg Trial of Nazi officers. During the proceedings, Dr. Moreno-Ocampo presented arguments for 700 counts of "murder, kidnapping and torture," calling 835 witnesses and citing thousands of documents. He later prosecuted those responsible for mass killings during the 1987 and 1992 military rebellions in Argentina. For a decade after the so-called "Junta Trials," Dr. Moreno-Ocampo was involved in several high profile cases of international criminal justice, including the extradition of the former Nazi officer Mr. Erich Priebke to Italy, the trial of Chilean secret police for the murder of General Carlos Prats and case against military commanders accused of malpractice during the Malvinas/Falklands war.
A member of the global board of Transparency International, Dr. Moreno-Ocampo has also been a visiting professor at both Stanford University and Harvard University. He has resigned from all of these institutions in order to remain impartial during his tenure as Prosecutor of the Court.
Professor Naomi Roht-Arriaza
University of California Hastings College of the Law
Professor Roht-Arriaza grew up in Queens, New York, Chile and Costa Rica. She taught school on a banana plantation and helped set up a field hospital in a Guatemalan village before settling down in the Bay Area in 1978 and finally finishing a B.A. at U.C. Berkeley. She then worked for eight years as an organizer, journalist and paralegal in immigration law before returning to Berkeley to complete a law degree at Boalt Hall and a Masters at the Graduate School of Public Policy. She graduated first in her class at Boalt, where she was a Note & Comment Editor of the law review, Order of the Coif and a member of the Boalt Hall Group in International Studies. After graduation she clerked for Judge James Browning of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco. During 1991-92, Professor Roht-Arriaza was the first Riesenfeld Fellow in International Law and Organizations at Boalt Hall. In the summer and fall of 1995, she was a European Community Fulbright Scholar in Spain. In 2001-02 she received research grants from the United States Institute of Peace and the MacArthur Foundation.
Professor Roht-Arriaza teaches in the areas of international human rights, torts, and domestic and global environmental law and policy. She is the author of The Pinochet Effect: Transnational Justice in the Age of Human Rights (2005) and Impunity and Human Rights in International Law and Practice (1995). A third book, on post-2000 transitional justice initiatives, will be published in 2006. She is an associate editor of the Yearbook on International Environmental Law. She continues to write on accountability, both state and corporate, for human rights violations as well as on other human rights, international criminal law and global environmental issues. She serves on the boards of human rights and environmental groups, and lives in the East Bay.
Professor Leila Sadat
Washington University School of Law
Professor Sadat is the Henry H. Oberschelp Professor of Law at the Washington University School of Law and the Director of the Whitney R. Harris Institute of Global Legal Studies. She is an internationally-recognized authority in international criminal law and human rights and a prolific scholar, publishing in leading journals in the United States and abroad. Trained in both the French and American legal systems, Sadat brings a rare cosmopolitan perspective to her work. She is particularly well-known for her expertise on the International Criminal Court, and was a delegate to the U.N. Preparatory Committee and to the 1998 diplomatic conference in Rome at which the Court was established. She has published a series of articles on the Court and an award-winning monograph, "The International Criminal Court and the Transformation of International Law" which was supported by a grant from the U.S. Institute of Peace. She has written extensively on the question of amnesties for atrocity crimes as part of the Princeton Project on Universal Jurisdiction, and authored several follow up pieces including Exile, Amnesty and International Law, 81 Notre Dame Law Review 955 (2006). Her trenchant commentaries on U.S. foreign policy following the September 11th attacks are highly regarded and include Terrorism and the Rule of Law, and Nightmares from the War on Terror, forthcoming in the George Washington Law Review. From May 2001 until September 2003, Sadat served on the nine-member U.S. Commission for International Religious Freedom.
Professor Sadat is often heard on national media, and has an active speaking schedule. She currently serves as Secretary of the American Society of Comparative Law, Vice-President of the International Law Association (American Branch) and the International Association of Penal Law (AIDP), and is a member of the American Law Institute. Sadat has also served as a member of the Executive Council, Executive Committee and Awards Committee for the American Society of International Law.
Congresswoman Jan Schakowsky
U.S. Representative, 9th District of Illinois
Congresswoman Jan Schakowsky was elected to represent Illinois' 9th Congressional District on November 3, 1998, after serving for eight years in the Illinois State Assembly. She is in her fifth term. Schakowsky serves in the House Democratic Leadership as Chief Deputy Whip and as a member of the Steering and Policy Committee. She is a member of the Energy and Commerce Committee. On that Committee, she serves as Vice-Chair of the Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer Protection and as a member of the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations.
Speaker Pelosi recently appointed Schakowsky to serve on the House Select Committee on Intelligence. Schakowsky opposed the Iraq war resolution and was a founding member of the Out-of-Iraq Caucus. Schakowsky is a leading supporter of international human rights. She is also a strong advocate for women's issues in Congress, sponsoring legislation that would prevent violence against immigrant women, establish transitional housing for women and children who are victims of abuse, and commemorate International Women's Day. During the 110th Congress, Schakowsky serves as Democratic Vice Chair of the bipartisan Women's Caucus. In the House, Schakowsky has won major legislative victories to increase federal assistance for abused women and children and to protect the rights of battered immigrant women; to reform election laws guaranteeing that no registered voter is turned away at the poll; to expand housing opportunities for low-income people; and to assist small business owners and farmers.
Professor Michael Scharf
Case Western Reserve University School of Law
Michael Scharf is Professor of Law and Director of the Frederick K. Cox International Law Center at Case Western Reserve University School of Law. In 2004-05, Scharf served as a member of the international team of experts that provided training to the judges of the Iraqi High Tribunal, and in 2006 he led the first training session for the investigative judges and prosecutors of the newly established U.N. Cambodia Genocide Tribunal. In February 2005, Scharf and the Public International Law and Policy Group, a Non-Governmental Organization he co-founded, were nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by six governments and the Prosecutor of an International Criminal Tribunal for the work they have done to help in the prosecution of major war criminals, such as Slobodan Milosevic, Charles Taylor, and Saddam Hussein.
During the elder Bush and Clinton Administrations, Scharf served in the Office of the Legal Adviser of the U.S. Department of State, where he held the positions of Attorney-Adviser for Law Enforcement and Intelligence, Attorney-Adviser for United Nations Affairs, and delegate to the United Nations Human Rights Commission. A graduate of Duke University School of Law (Order of the Coif and High Honors), and judicial clerk to Judge Gerald Bard Tjoflat on the Eleventh Circuit Federal Court of Appeals, Scharf is the author of over sixty scholarly articles and ten books, including two that have won National Book of the Year Awards. Scharf has also testified before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the House Armed Services Committee; his Op Eds have been published by the Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Boston Globe, Christian Science Monitor, and International Herald Tribune; and he has appeared on ABC World News Tonight, the NBC Today Show, Nightline, The O'Reilly Factor, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, The Charlie Rose Show, the BBC, CNN, and NPR.
Winner of the Case School of Law Alumni Association's 2005 "Distinguished Teacher Award" and Ohio Magazine's 2007 "Excellence in Education Award," Scharf teaches International Law, International Criminal Law, the Law of International Organizations, and the War Crimes Research Lab. In 2002, Scharf established the War Crimes Research Office at Case Western Reserve University School of Law, which provides research assistance to the Prosecutors of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the International Criminal Court, the Cambodia Genocide Tribunal, and the Iraqi High Tribunal on issues pending before those international tribunals.
Professor David Scheffer
Northwestern University School of Law
David Scheffer holds an endowed professorship and serves as the Director of the Center for International Human Rights at Northwestern University's School of Law. He teaches International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law. He was previously the U.S. Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues (1997-2001) and led the U.S. delegation in U.N. talks establishing the International Criminal Court. During his ambassadorship, Scheffer negotiated and coordinated U.S. support for the establishment and operation of international and hybrid criminal tribunals and U.S. responses to atrocities anywhere in the world. He also headed the Atrocities Prevention Inter-Agency Working Group. During the first term of the Clinton Administration, Scheffer served as senior adviser and counsel to the U.S. Representative to the United Nations, Dr. Madeleine Albright, and served from 1993 through 1996 on the Deputies Committee of the National Security Council. Scheffer recently held visiting professorships at Northwestern Law, Georgetown University Law Center, and George Washington University Law School and taught earlier at Duke University School of Law and Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs. He has published extensively on international legal and political issues and appears regularly in the national and international media. He is a CNN Legal Analyst. Scheffer is a member of the New York and District of Columbia Bars, the American Society of International Law (formerly serving on the Executive Council), and the Council on Foreign Relations, and is Chairman of the Board of Directors of the International Law Students Association.
Senior Fellow, Center for American Progress; Co-Chair, ENOUGH Project
Gayle Smith is a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress and Co-Chair of the ENOUGH Campaign. She also is Director of the International Rights & Responsibilities Program. Previously, Gayle served as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for African Affairs at the National Security Council from 1998-2001, and as Senior Advisor to the Administrator and Chief of Staff of the U.S. Agency for International Development from 1994-1998. Gayle was based in Africa for over 20 years as a journalist covering military, economic, and political affairs and has also consulted for a wide range of NGOs, foundations, and governmental organizations, including UNICEF, the World Bank, Dutch Interchurch Aid, Norwegian Church Relief, and the Canadian Council for International Cooperation. She won the World Journalism Award from the World Affairs Council and the World Hunger Year Award in 1991, and in 1999 won the National Security Council's Samuel Nelson Drew Award for Distinguished Contribution in Pursuit of Global Peace. Gayle is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and serves on the boards of Oxfam America, the Africa America Institute, USA for Africa, and the National Security Network, on the Policy Advisory Boards of DATA, the Acumen Fund, and the Global Fairness Initiative, and is the Working Group Chair on Global Poverty for the Clinton Global Initiative.
Ambassador Richard Williamson
Presidential Special Envoy to Sudan
Richard Williamson has become the Special Envoy to Sudan as of January 7, 2008. Mr. Williamson is also a practicing partner in the law office of Winston and Strawn. Earlier in the Bush Administration, Williamson, who has broad foreign policy and negotiating experience, served as Ambassador to the United Nations for Special Political Affairs and as Ambassador to the U.N. Commission on Human Rights. Previously, he served in senior foreign policy positions under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush, including as Assistant Secretary of State for International Organizations at the Department of State, and an Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Affairs in the White House. He also has served as Chairman of the Illinois Republican Party. Williamson is active in a wide variety of civic organizations, serving on the board of directors of the International Republican Institute; the board of the Committee in Support of Russian Civil Society; a member of the advisory committee for the International Human Rights Law Institute, DePaul University, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Williamson received an A.B., cum laude, in 1971 from Princeton University. He received a J.D. in 1974 from the University of Virginia School of Law, where he was executive editor of the Virginia Journal of International Law. Williamson has authored seven books and edited three. He has written more than 175 articles in professional and popular periodicals.